There are both major and minor salivary gland in the mouth which secrete saliva and a variety of enzymes to help process foods and make swallowing easy. These salivary glands can get infected or inflamed and can also be very painful; sometimes the salivary glands also develop benign and malignant cancers. However, the most common problem with salivary gland is formation of stones in the small ducts which prevent free flowing of saliva. The gland swells as they cannot empty and often get infected. While most stones in the duct may resolve, sometimes surgery and antibiotics are required.
Mumps of the salivary glands is a viral infection of the parotid glands. This results in painful swelling at the sides of the mouth in both adults and children. The infection is quite contagious. Today mumps is prevented by getting vaccinated in infancy. There is no specific treatment for mumps except for hydration and Tylenol. Sometimes mumps can cause inflammation of the brain, testicular swelling or hearing loss.
Bad breath (halitosis) has many causes including smoking, alcohol, poor care of dentures, gum disease, chronic lung disease, breathing through the mouth, sinusitis, liver disease, diabetes, pregnancy, not brushing or flossing on a regular basis. Medications that cause dryness in the mouth can also cause bad breath. These include antidepressants, anti histamines and antipsychotics. The best way to prevent bad breath is to brush teeth frequently, clean the tongue, keep the nose and sinus clean and drink adequate water.
Canker sores are small ulcers that appear on the inside of the mouth, lips and on tongue. Most small canker sores disappear within 10-14 days. Canker sores are most common in young and middle aged individuals. Sometimes individuals with allergies are more prone to these sores. Besides an awkward sensation, these sores can also cause tingling or a burning sensation. Unlike herpes sores, canker sores are always found inside the mouth and are usually less painful. Good oral hygiene does help but sometime one may have to use a topical corticosteroid.
Candida is a very common infection of the mouth in immunocompromised individuals. Individuals who have undergone a transplant, HIV, cancer or use corticosteroids commonly develop candida of the mouth and oral cavity. The typical signs are a white patch that may be associated with burning, soreness, irritation or a white cheesy like appearance. Once the diagnosis is made, candida can be treated with a variety of anti fungal drugs.
Another very common disorder of the oral cavity is herpes simplex infection (HSV). This virus causes blisters and sores around the mouth and lips. HSV infections are not only annoying but also painful and may keep on recurring. Although many people get infected with the virus, only 10% actually develop the sores. The sores may last anywhere from 3-10 days and are very infectious. Some people have recurrences either in the same location or at a nearby site. Recurrent infections tend to be mild in nature and may be brought on by stress, sun, menstrual periods, trauma or physical stress.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a very painful annoying disorder that causes a sensation of burning on the lips, tongue, mouth and gums. The disorder can affect anyone but tends to occur most often in middle aged women. BMS has been linked to a variety of dental and medical disorders like menopause, dry mouth and allergies. Some individual develop one episode of BMS and others develop recurrent episodes which last months or years. Other features of this distressing disorder include anxiety, depression and social isolation. There is no cure for this disorder and treatment includes use of hydrating agents, pain medications, vitamin supplements or the usage of antidepressants.
Oral cancer may occur on the lips, tongue, gums, floor of the mouth or inside the cheeks. The majority of cancers of the mouth are known as squamous cell cancers. Oral cancers are usually painless in the initial stages or may appear like an ulcer. Causes of oral cancer include smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, exposure to sunlight (lip cancer), chewing tobacco, and infection with the human Human papillomavirus. The earlier the oral cancer is diagnosed, the better the chances for full recovery. If you have a suspicious mass or ulcer on the mouth which has been persistent, then you should always get a physician to look at it. Diagnosis is usually made with a biopsy and the treatment depends on the exact type of cancer, where it is situated, and extent of spreading.
^ Mouth Disease Information Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ "ADA.org: Dentistry Definitions". http://www.ada.org/prof/ed/specialties/definitions.asp#definition.
^ "ICD-10:". http://www.who.int/classifications/apps/icd/icd10online/?gk00.htm+k00.
^ Recognizing Oral Disease World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ What are Mumps Ministry of health and long term care portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ Oral Health from A to Z American Dental Association. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ Diseases of the Digestive System The oral cavity FAQ's Health Portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ Women's Oral Health and Overall Health Colgate online portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ Herpes Guide: How do I know if I have herpes Canadian Herpes Information portal. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
^ Burning Mouth Syndrome American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved on 2010-02-01
[http://orthofree.com/en/default.asp?MenuID=1 Communication and information in orthodontics
The International Journal of Dental Anthropology - IJDA
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Pathology: Medical conditions and ICD code
(Disease / Disorder / Illness, Syndrome / Sequence, Symptom / Sign, Injury, etc.)
Infectious disease/Infection: Bacterial disease (G+, G-) Virus disease Parasitic disease (Protozoan infection, Helminthiasis, Ectoparasitic infestation) Mycosis Zoonosis
140-239 & 280-289)
Cancer (C00-D48, 140-239)
Myeloid hematologic (D50-D77, 280-289)
Lymphoid immune (D80-D89, 279)
Immunodeficiency Immunoproliferative disorder Hypersensitivity
Endocrine disease Nutrition disorder Inborn error of metabolism
Nervous system disease (CNS, PNS) Neuromuscular disease
Eye disease Ear disease
Cardiovascular disease (Heart disease, Vascular disease)
Respiratory disease (Obstructive lung disease, Restrictive lung disease, Pneumonia)
Stomatognathic disease (Tooth disease) Digestive disease (Esophageal, Stomach, Enteropathy, Liver, Pancreatic)
Skin disease skin appendages (Nail disease, Hair disease, Sweat gland disease)
Musculoskeletal disorders Osteochondropathy (Osteopathy, Chondropathy)
Urologic disease (Nephropathy, Urinary bladder disease) Male genital disease Breast disease Female genital disease
Complications of pregnancy Obstetric labor complication Puerperal disorder
Syndromes Medical signs (Eponymous)
Bone fracture Joint dislocation Sprain Strain subluxation Head injury Chest trauma Poisoning
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Tooth disease (K00-K05, 520-525)
size and form
Concrescence Fusion Gemination Dens evaginatus/Talon cusp Dens invaginatus Enamel pearl Macrodontia Microdontia Taurodontism
Dilaceration Regional odontodysplasia Turner's hypoplasia
Other hereditary disturbances
Amelogenesis imperfecta Dentinogenesis imperfecta Dentin dysplasia
Caries (tooth decay) Attrition Abrasion Erosion
tooth resorption (External resorption, Internal resorption, Root resorption)
Pulpitis Periapical abscess Fluorosis Toothache
bone cyst (Dentigerous cyst, Calcifying odontogenic cyst, Glandular odontogenic cyst)
tooth navs: anat/dev, disease/neoplasia, proc
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Oral pathology: Stomatognathic disease (K06-K14, 526-529)
Vestibule of mouth
Cheilitis (Angular, Actinic) Herpes labialis
Oral cavity proper
and periapical tissues
gingival disease (Gingivitis, Pericoronitis, Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, Noma) Periodontitis Ulcer
Glossitis (Geographic tongue) Fissured tongue Glossodynia Black hairy tongue Strawberry tongue
Gnathitis jaw abnormality (Micrognathism, Prognathism, Retrognathism)
Temporomandibular joint disorder
Cherubism Congenital epulis Keratocystic odontogenic tumour Torus mandibularis Torus palatinus
Sialadenitis (Parotitis) Benign lymphoepithelial lesion Necrotizing sialometaplasia Ranula Sialolithiasis
saliva: Drooling/sialorrhea Xerostomia
Stomatitis (Aphthous ulcer, Herpetic stomatitis)
oral mucosa: Erythroplakia Leukoplakia (Hairy leukoplakia) White sponge nevus
mouth navs: anat/dev, noncongen/congen face/congen GI/neoplasia, symptoms, proc
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(in the United States)
Endodontics - Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology - Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery - Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics - Pediatric Dentistry - Periodontics - Prosthodontics - Dental public health - Restorative Dentistry
(in the United States)
Cosmetic Dentistry - Dental Implantology - Temporomandibular Joint Disorder - Geriatric dentistry
Forensic Odontology - Dental Traumatology - Oral pathology
Dental extraction - Tooth filling - Root canal therapy - Root end surgery - Scaling and root planing - Teeth cleaning -Tooth bonding - Tooth polishing - Tooth bleaching
List of oral health and dental topics - List of basic dentistry topics - Oral hygiene - Dental instruments - Restorative materials
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Categories: Oral pathology | Pathology | Dentistry stubs